The Epidemic Of Real Estate Foreclosures

Buying a foreclosure is a good way to generate residual income through real estate. Foreclosure is basically a state of affairs that occurs when an individual does not pay the mortgage bills. You can make money on foreclosure before anybody gets to know about them and it becomes public knowledge. There are clearly 3 etched out phases in the process of foreclosure-pre foreclosure, foreclosure at action, and post foreclosure. You can get a better leverage position if you are able to intervene at an earlier moment in the process of foreclosure. The best time to go into the process is immediately after the auction or just prior to the cure day. You’ll enjoy this, short term loans Cleveland, OH.

An investor can purchase properties that are in their foreclosure at prices less than the market value. Such a person can get a list of foreclosure properties through real estate listings, internet website, mortgage brokers, or local newspapers. However, it is better to stick to one area and buy foreclosure properties there. This has an added benefit of you getting to be aware of the market well. Familiarization with a targeted area or locality means that there’s more chances of profits.

On another note…

An investor must be good at identifying properties that will enable the chance to make the maximum benefits from residual income through real estate in a short time. In fact multiple properties should be purchased in order to prevent a period of inactivity that might occur in the future due to non availability of foreclosure properties.

More Ranting About Real Estate Foreclosure

Once a property is purchased, the house can be quickly repaired with adequate renovations, replacements and refurbishment. An important fact that must be borne in mind before buying a foreclosure property is that houses that need only cosmetic repair are the most profitable and useful for making residual income through real estate. In case you are looking into this topic; look at

After the necessary modifications have been made, the real estate investor should quickly find a buyer and should settle the deal with the first interested buyer. It isn’t a good idea to wait for any others who might make a better deal. This is because the more a flipped house sits in the market, the lower its price becomes in the market. However, a real estate investor might want to hold a property for a length of time in the group holdings for investments. The primary reason behind this is the opportunity to build equity. In fact the greater the number of properties the real estate investor has, the more his profit will be.

The investor can make a cash offer if he got the funds available, of course. The best deals are normally made by investors who’ve the capacity to pay in cash and close quickly. However, if you’re just getting started investing in pre-foreclosure real estate and do not have thousands of dollars sitting around, an owner-financed deal can still be very profitable.

So how do you find pre-foreclosure real estate deals? The best way is to advertise. Many desperate owners are already looking for some kind of way out of their situation. When they see your’ I Buy Houses’ sign, they will give you a call. If you can give them a solution that keeps them from having a foreclosure on their credit report, you have got a shot at working out a contract with them, and you are on your way to becoming a full-time pre-foreclosure real estate investor.

Purchasing a foreclosure is good and extremely popular method of making good profits and residual income through real estate. In fact with a little smart thinking a great deal of money can be saved in the renovation stage.


Current State of The Texas Economy

To Americans, all Texans, and anybody else in the WHOLE WORLD that cannot stand corruption, please read this piece. This is non-fiction.

The State Bar of Texas AND Texas politicians are the most corrupt in the US. The State Bar of Texas refuses to discipline attorneys who commit serious crimes such as forgery and insurance fraud. Texas politicians including Governor Rick Perry refuse to interfere, although by law they can force the State Bar to uphold Texas law. Dishonest attorneys run amok and unfazed in Texas practicing with clean records and defrauding their clients, because they know nothing will happen to them. I was told the State Bar of Texas is like a country club for attorneys. It proved to be true.

A Crowd of Information On Texas Governor

If Rick Perry spent a bit more time at work, he might know what is going on in the condition of Texas. Click this link;

I was defrauded by attorney Ilene Smoger of Dallas, TX. Twice, thanks to the corruption at the State Bar of Texas. I hired Ms. Smoger to be my attorney after a car accident. I went to view a chiropractic clinic, Lee Moses, and Moses Chiropractic Clinic referred me to his very good friend attorney Ilene Smoger. After I hired her, they engaged in insurance fraud by double-billing both my car and health insurance in respect of the same services. When the first insurance check arrived, she asked me to endorse it to the chiropractors. The check was already at their clinic. That is fraud. That check was to cover my medical bills. Later I found out this information, and that, in view of the amount involved and the seriousness of the crime-insurance fraud-by law Ms. Smoger should be disbarred and sent to gaol. At the time in Texas, insurance fraud involving an amount between $2, 000.00 And $10, 000 was called a state-jail felony and carried jail time, up to a year. I filed a complaint with the State bar against Ms. Smoger. We had a hearing. I brought all the evidence showing she defrauded me and committed insurance fraud. The investigative panel stated in clear terms she took my money. Ms. Smoger left the hearing in tears. Then the State Bar of Texas sent me a letter saying Ms. Smoger did not do anything wrong. According to the State Bar of Texas, an attorney who defrauds her client and commits insurance fraud and serious crimes that deserve disbarment and prison time IS NOT DOING ANYTHING WRONG. I was forced to keep her as one of my attorneys although she was no longer representing me.


The Best Fat Blocker Available Today

Fat blockers are all the rage. These supplements are typically taken with meals that have a moderate to high saturated fat level. In other words, if you’re trying to lose weight but have a massive craving for a bacon cheeseburger and fries, this would represent the perfect time to follow a fat blocker. The idea is to take enough fat blocking supplements to absorb the fat that is in your meal. Those who wish to see a substantial weight loss are usually advised to take fat blockers with every meal. In case you need other posts relevant to this topic, you can check fat blocker review.

Similar to fat blockers are carb blockers. These supplements simply block carbohydrates instead of fat. The main ingredient in most carb blockers is Phaseolus Vulgaris extract. This ingredient is used because it blocks carbohydrate absorption in the digestive tract. Carb blockers are also taken immediately before or just after a meal, with a view to block any carbs in the meal.

To widen the discussion about best fat blocker supplement)…

Carb blockers do just that, block carbs. You can add carb blockers to any diet or exercise program. In my opinion, this is a most unnatural thing to bring into your body. Some people who’re working on losing weight use carb blockers with thermogenics. Fat blockers are much like carb blockers. Fat blocker’s main ingredient is chitosan. It binds to fat in the digestive tract.

More Info About Best Fat Blocker Supplement

If you’re attempting to ward off additional body fat, then fat and carb blockers are a good idea. They will help you to block any extra fat from building up in your body. They won’t however, help you to burn the fat that is already there. You will need fat burners, for this. Fat burners work by raising your metabolism and helping you to effectively burn off more fat. If you want to lose weight then these supplements are a good choice. In order to select a supplement that will allow you to see your desired weight goals, you need to fully understand the differences in these products. And, in case you are after even more posts posted about best fat blocker supplement, click proactol plus.

Keep in mind that taking fat burners alone won’t help you. In order for these supplements to work, you must take part in a healthy eating and exercise plan. The way that they work is by increasing the number of fat that you burn. The more you workout, the more they’ll work for you.

If you’re looking to keep a healthy body fat ratio, then fat blockers are a good choice. However, if you’re looking to lose weight and tone up, then fat burners should be used. They will help you to see results faster by burning more fat and helping you to tone your muscles. Once you have determined what you need individually, then you can decide on which supplement will work best. Finding the best fat burners isn’t difficult. However, you must know exactly what you need with regards to weight loss. Along the same lines, maintaining your healthy body weight is likewise not difficult, as long as you are well aware which fat blocker will work best for your individual body shape and style.


Random Ramblings About Bell Curve

Right here is an intriguing news flash: The entire Bell-curve theory was created by lazy statisticians as a fast and easy way to record the huge photo of how everything would ultimately wind up. At the time, all they had access to were tiny pieces of a bigger-than-life reality they couldn’t begin to see, let alone determine! However, something disastrous happened along the way to teaching this theory and looking into. This unfavorable side effect was that this artificial theory really produced extremely real facts for everyone before anyone understood exactly what was going on. Everyone presumed the reality of this theory, typically with measly evidence from small samples.

Let’s now think of the placement of the letters B through G in regards to basic discrepancy ranges from A. Let’s assume the letters A, C, E, and G are positioned one basic discrepancy apart so that the distance from A to G is 3 conventional variances. Therefore, the distance from one letter to the next is’ basic deviation. It is a reality of nature, simply as Pi is the very same no matter the size of a circle, that whenever we determine an arbitrarily picked group for some characteristic which each member of the group possesses in differing degree, we could anticipate the majority of the measurements to bunch around the average, while the rest reduce slowly toward both extremes of the distribution forming a bell-shaped curve. This is called ‘Gauss’s Law,’ and it describes any ‘regular’ distribution in nature. Using the basic variance as a procedure of difference, we can know the probability of discovering quality measurements of any magnitude. As an example, in any big usually dispersed set of characteristic measurements we know that quality measurements that are’ basic variance or higher than the average (B on the chart) will happen 30.85 % of the time. Again, this is a law of nature. We know that 1. measurements 1 standard deviation or more higher than the average (C) happen 15.87 % of the time. 2. measurements 1.5 conventional discrepancies or greater than the average (D) occur 6.68 % of the time, 3. measurements 2 basic variances or greater than the average (E) occur 2.28 % of the time, 4. measurements 2.5 conventional discrepancies or greater than the average (F) take place. 62 % of the time, and 5. measurements 3 basic variances or higher than the average (G) happen. 13 % of the time.

Let’s widen the topic

Given this info, it is possible to approximate the probability of the event of a rate spike of a particular magnitude (as stood for by its range from the standard in standard discrepancies). The word ‘approximate’ is made use of because stock cost variations are not exactly ‘normally’ dispersed. Assume for a moment that stock price spikes precisely followed a ‘typical’ distribution or bell curve. A stop loss that is set at 1.5 conventional deviations from the typical price would be set off roughly 6.68 % of the time (see list above). Assume that during the last 20 days there were no special occasions that inordinately influenced the stock and thought the exact same conditions dominated the next 100 days. Because case, spikes, huge enough to cause a stop loss set at 1.5 basic divisions would probably happen about 6.68 times in 100 days or about when every 15 days merely because of the normal volatility or ‘noise’ on the stock’s habits. A spike large enough to trigger the stop would take place about once every 50 days if we use 2 standard variances.

Bell Curve?? More Considerations

To compute a volatility-adjusted stop loss, it is required to measure rate spikes and the approximate frequencies at which price spikes of numerous magnitudes occur over a provided time. Measuring the ranges from the daily’s low and high from the average price over an offered period will certainly yield the required information. This detail can be utilized to approximate the likelihood of the incident of a spike of a particular magnitude (as represented by its distance from the standard in basic deviations).

The truth of the matter is that actually successful individuals do not always grow since of their elite, superior talents or the silver spoons they were born with. They just end up being aware of exactly what unique and distinct talents they have, establish them totally and use them wisely and regularly to obtain the very best outcomes, with great timing and a little luck. Discovering your special talents is not as easy as it sounds. Sometimes such presents include things you enjoy doing most and are best at; and in some cases, they are things that are the most hard for you, which you actually dislike doing. And regrettably sometimes you get no support and end up having your talents buried for you. That is when you have to go digging. But successful diggers need to have the right perspective about where and how to dig.

The most practical and efficient perspective to have about creativity is that everybody has it at their fingertips, when you redefine it into more realistic terms. An example is taking something very normal, then adding something small, however different to the equation and eventually producing something brand-new and uncommon. That type of creativity is easy to gain access to and has the largest possible application. However, specifying creativity in less than realistic terms, takes it away from the masses and hides it with the couple of elite Bell Curve escapees, where it stays. When you redefine success on your own terms, instead of how the world or mega mass media machine imposes its ideal meaning onto you, you normally end up having more of it, just like when you redefine something like creativity. Attempt it, it works. It is the surest and quickest way to obtain more of what you need to succeed, and all of it beginnings with getting the right perspective on creativity.

The incorrect perspective to have about timing, which in fact keeps you caught under the middle area of the Bell Curve, is that time is a consecutive and mechanical fixed passage of events from past to the here and now in the future. This usual, conventional conception of time is really only one small part of the big picture. A better perspective to base your escape intend on is the most fluid, irregular mental perception of the speed or slowness of time and how time can be broadened by concentrating more on exactly what you are attempting to do today– far from exactly what you have actually done in the past or what you want to perform in the future. More can get done right now than other time. And, with success, time may be the most useful resource that is offered in equivalent parts to everyone, depending upon your perspective.

There is a way out that works if you are caught under the middle part of the Bell Curve and worn out of living an average existence. It simply includes recognizing something so extensive that it isn’t easy to see– that’s where you are relying on where you are looking from, or your relative perspective/viewpoint. If you do not like where you are under the Bell Curve, invest a long time and effort in seeing how your wrong perspective is keeping you there and how a right one can help you leave to prosper and flexibility, where you really wish to be. This is not artificial bell Curve talk, however the genuine things that work, to unmask the Bell Curve misconception.


Decisions About Entrepreneur

Junior entrepreneurs are springing up everywhere and we are not talking lemonade stands on a hot summer day! Thanks to the net, it is easier than ever for middle and secondary school-aged kids to start their own business and manage it to the extent that it is quite successful and generates a regular income.

The entrepreneur business opportunity we’re going to get a look at is a cash generating system. What is drawing many to this type of start on the internet is that, all you need to be started is access to internet connection, a computer, and a desire for success.

You were probably aware of that!

What makes this cash generating system unique is the fact that it has previously proven to be successful by many others like yourself, who’re able to quickly start reaping the benefits.

Moving The Discussion Forward

If your child seems to fit the entrepreneur definition and they show a strong interest in developing a new business, there are some things they will need to develop and think through in order to be successful.

Expertise-Is the idea in accordance with your teen’s interest and expertise or will they require help with the project? If help is needed, who might be willing and will they require to be paid? It’s always best for young marketing entrepreneurs begin with a product or service that excites them Internet-based businesses are quite popular these days and kids are so internet savvy that these businesses are a breeze for them to create and run.

Once you have settled on a product or service, there’s always lots of work to do before you can kick off a new business. Writing a business plan is most important. For any entrepreneur to be successful, a well-thought out business plan is an absolute necessity, even if the company seems simple. Think about things such as start-up money, amount of sales needed to make a profit, overhead, etc. Your teen will also need to set on their marketing entrepreneur hat and determine how to best promote his/her product or service.

Home based businesses of entrepreneurs frequently attract financiers if they’ve got a good solid business plan that can bring them back their money quickly. In that light, you be able to say that a solid plan is all you need to be your venture off the ground.

Not every child has the unit that it takes to become the epitome of the entrepreneur definition, so reward yours for his ambition by helping as much as possible. Failure can quickly discourage a child, but if parents are willing to use their knowledge to help ensure success, the child/teen will be most likely to stick with the project and perhaps even undertake more new businesses in the future.


Above The Fold – Your Choice

When you work using one of the best SEO companies, your website is sure to write the various evaluation methods that Google implements, including the algorithm update for above the fold content. The top SEO companies have a complete grasp on how Google evaluates websites. Hiring the best company is the sure way for you to obtain the highest ranking for your website, because they understand how to make the best of above the fold content.


When a user clicks through to your landing page, they should instantly be able to say where they are. Your landing page designs should have something representing your company be it your company logo, your website or logo color scheme, or even your company’s name. In the best landing pages viewers know what company landing page they are looking at since there is representation of the firm above the fold-usually at the top of the page.

If you have several landing pages for different things, you probably already know this, but in case you only use one landing page for multiple products, we’ll say it: you should have one landing page per call to action. Landing page designs work best when they are focused on one goal. And it is normal to have several landing page designs for several different products-in fact, you should.

White space can become a web designer’s best friend. The use of white space in landing page designs adds contrast, makes the design look clean and clear, and limits distractions for the viewer. Don’t be afraid to use white space.

While white space is important to landing page designs, so are images. The best landing pages use images to tell a story or underline a point. Images are visually appealing to a viewer and may likewise be very informative. Choose your images wisely so they do make an impact.

Speaking of images, the use of testimonials are very important to landing page designs, but they are even more impactful when hand in hand with a picture. Don’t be afraid to add an image to your testimonials.

The information that was written on the top part of the front page of newspapers was where the term above the fold originated. However, in today’s present times, this term is being used in the area of the website design. For websites, above the fold refers to the field of a particular web page that can be seen without having to scroll the page down.

One of the main factors that prompted Google to roll out the previously mentioned algorithm change was the reality that many site visitors complained about websites that were top heavy with various ads. Websites were featuring too many ads above the fold, despite of being properly optimized, and the visitors to these sites were obliged to scroll all the way down the page, just to search for the specific information that they were seeking.

Now that you learn more about the term ‘above the fold ‘, you probably have some idea of the way in which the content placed in this particular surface of a web page can affect ranking. Always keep into account the fact that the first thing that people will see when they visit a particular website is the above the fold content. This is because it is important to place high quality content in this region, so that site visitors will find what they need immediately and also be invited to explore the website further.

The best SEO companies know how to retain their clients sites from being penalized by Google. The top SEO companies also understand the importance of giving high quality web content that is unique and different than anything found on the Internet. The leading SEO companies also make use of effective techniques to present high quality web content in a proper layout.


Straightforward Advice About Agile Development Method

Software development uses a planned and structured process to develop software products. ‘ Software Development’ involves writing the code. This is used to produce a software. However, often the process of software development includes steps like, developing the concept of the software, designing the software through to the last stage of development, and then finally handing over the tested software to the client. There are different models that serve to develop software. They include, the waterfall model, spiral model, prototype model, incremental model, agile model, etc.

The term agile stands for ‘moving quickly’. Agile development model is well known for its quick adaptability to the changing realities. It is a lightweight software development model. This was prepared in the 1990s’.

And Even More…..

The delivery of the software is performed at regular intervals, as opposed to months. This is the case with the waterfall model. The measure of progress used in agile modeling, is the different working models delivered to the client. Since the software is developed in small batches, changes can easily be fed into the product. There is a lot of emphasis laid on technical excellence and good layout of the software. The software development team has to adapt regularly to the changing circumstances.

Traditional modeling methods in software development projects have given way to the agile practices. These are implemented in a more flexible manner. It supplements the different agile methodologies like extreme programming, scrum models, and agile unified process.

The more common and modern SDLC is called Agile. Within Agile there are several different methodologies including XP (Extreme Programming), Scrum, Agile Modeling, Agile Unified Process, Kanban, and quite a few more. This form of software development has been approved by many top name software development shops and is now the most common method.

Software development is normally done with a team of people ranging in size from three to hundreds. The size of the piece of software will generally determine the extent of the team. Larger projects with very large teams are prone to failure. The failure of large projects is another reason why Agile software development has grown in popularity. Most Agile methodologies advocate for releasing software with what is referred to as minimal marketable features. The likelihood of failure is greatly reduced by releasing as soon as possible.

The first and the foremost stage in the development process is the requirement definition. The customer needs are made available to the development team. This communication should be clear, so that there’s no ambiguity left while developing the software.

Once the needs are well understood, the team sets their expected outputs. After the software has been developed, these expectations should match with the actual results.

As is the case with any project development, the next stage in the agile model is planning. The team leader, The product owner, and the development team brainstorm over the expectations, and the action programme for developing the software is designed.

The development process starts based on the planning. This is termed as the first iteration. The code is functionally tested, deployed and quality checks are done. After demonstration, if the results don’t match the expected ones, then the next iteration starts.

However, if the code is according to the expected results and it satisfies customer needs, then the unit testing takes place and the software is released.

The model is built on four values. These are essential for making the development process function smoothly, and give the desired end result. The four values are; communication, simplicity, feedback, and courage.

There is always a difference between what the developer creates, and what is commercially viable. And when we’re referring to agile model, where slightest of changes are incorporated quickly, it is necessary to bridge this gap at the earlier. The smallest of miscommunication can delay the entire project for days. Thus, communicating the needs of the project properly to the entire team of developers is very important. For this purpose, the model suggests the technique of pair programming, where two programmers work in collaboration to build the software. The aspect of unit testing can also turn out to be fruitful, only when the feedback is communicated properly to the developers.

The second value is simplicity. It is human nature to become overambitious when we work on an important project. But the key to success, according to agile model, is to hold it simple. The reason behind keeping the model simple is that the changes can be easily incorporated, without wasting a lot of time. Complex models will consume a lot of time even when subjected to smallest of changes.

The 3rd and the most important value is feedback. It is near impossible to be aware of the drawbacks of the software that has been prepared without a proper feedback system. As and when developers receive feedback, they immediately try to make the necessary changes. These changes put forward a sample image of the new software model that will be developed.

The last value is courage. Courage, in this context, is the capacity to respond to the feedback, in the proper manner. The entire development team should work together to achieve the targets, even though it means rewriting the entire code or simply making minor changes. The members should trust the other and also the customers, so that continuous improvements can be carried out in the project.

Values and principles go hand in hand. The first principle on which the model is developed is to provide useful, effective, and timely feedback. If you run out of milk powder while making a glass of coffee, it is important to provide this feedback immediately, else it will take no importance. Such a feedback will ensure that timely action is taken. Such open points are resolved immediately.

The next important principle is the incremental change. It means that the team will continuously make small changes as and when they come across any error. This will verify that the developers don’t have a lot of changes that are to be referred to, at the end of the project. Also, such changes will keep on taking place, even after the project is completed.

Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage. This is a declaration of attitude. The participants in an agile process aren’t afraid of change. They view changes to the requirements as good things, because those changes mean that the team has learned more about what it will take to meet the customer. An agile team works very hard to maintain the structure of its software flexible, so that when requirements change, the impact to the network is minimal.

The third principle is the encouragement of quality work. All the work that is being carried out in the development process should be appreciated. Such an appreciation will keep the employees motivated and thus, they’ll work enthusiastically to make the project a success.

Workersactually use and work with what we develop. Or, if we’re the preparation of a new product, they’ll be making it in production. The details of how their work will change, and the problems of learning the new tools or system are a central focus.

The last principle is to welcome change. While working on this model, it is extremely important to be open to changes and suggestions. There can be a position where the trade-off between changes and suggestions takes place, however, it may still require to receive a few changes.

Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.

Even though, there are many principles for agile model, the only important aspect that all of them focus on is the correct approach that the developer needs to take while developing the project.

The most important benefit of this model is the capacity to respond to the changing requirements of the project. This ensures that the initiatives of the development team aren’t wasted. This is often the case with the other methodologies. The changes are integrated immediately. This saves trouble later. There is no guesswork between the development team and the customer, as there is face-to-face communication and continuous inputs from the client. The culmination of this situation is that a high quality software is handed over to the client in the shortest period of time, and leaves the customer satisfied.

If the projects are comparative smaller, then using the agile model is certainly profitable. But, if it is a major project, then it is difficult to judge the efforts and the time needed for the project, in the development life cycle. Since the requirements are ever-changing, there is hardly any emphasis. This is laid on designing and documentation. Therefore, chances of the project going off the track easily are much more. The added problem is if the customer representative isn’t sure, then the probability of the project going off-track increases manifold. Only senior developers are in best position to take the decisions necessary for the agile type of development. This leaves hardly any place for an inexperienced programmers.

Scrum process focuses on delivering the highest business output, in the shortest period of time. The inspection and verification of software takes place very frequently, in about every two weeks to one month.

As the inspection and verification is done so frequently, the working of the software can be seen and judged. Depending on its working, and upon verification of actual results with the expected ones, the business unit can decide on continuing with the iteration or not. If the results aren’t satisfactory enough, the business unit always has an option of going to the following iteration. In each iteration, the product is developed, tested, and demonstrated.

The people involved in this process are; the product owner, scrum team, client, and scrum master. They play a very important part in the development process. The product owner is zero but the stakeholder who defines content, the features, and release time of the product. He is the one responsible to write user stories (customer requirements), and then add them to the product backlog. These user stories are documents that are written without any formal method or administrative allegations.

Thus, the response given to user requirements is faster. The scrum master is responsible for removing impediments, and is worded as it represents the management in the project. He ensures that the team adheres to scrum values and principles. The scrum team is a cross functional one with designers, programmers, UI Designers, testers, etc. The team is involved from design of the project to the software release stage.

The main disadvantage of this model is the absence of formal documentation. The unavailability of physical records, makes it hard to keep a track of the changes made in each iteration.

Another agile software development methodology is ‘Extreme programming’. This method focuses on customer satisfaction, by incorporating frequent changes in the design process. The need to meet the customer requirements is of paramount importance, despite the fact that the changes are made much later in the life cycle.

Out of the 12 core practices of XP; pair programming, unit testing of small releases, the code, and collective code ownership are the prominent ones. The XP method emphasizes on releasing even the smallest feature set, at the earliest. Any changes in the features are later considered. The code is changed accordingly. All the codes are written by two programmers, and so, no single programmer can claim authority for the same. Employees are always advised to keep the 40-hour work week schedule, without spending extra time on the project.

Agile model testing is carried out from the standpoint of the end user. No emphasis is laid on the rigid testing procedures. However, the focus is rather on conducting the tests iteratively on the newly developed software component. Regression tests are likewise carried out on the entire software, to check if any new bugs were fed into the software. In the agile testing model, the focus shifts from ‘testers as quality watchdog’ to ‘the entire team quality watchdog’.

As the behalf of the testing methodology suggests, testers have to adapt themselves to rapid development cycles, and make the required changes to the test suite. In this software testing type, the purpose is to test from the viewpoint of the customer, as early as possible during the development process. Because the testers are involved early on in the entire process of software development, they give the necessary information, feedback and suggestions to the development team, rather than giving them after the development came to the final stages.

Agile model has provided the software development process an effective and practice-based methodology. Therefore, the principle ‘maximize stakeholder value ‘, can actually be called into practice, leaving the customer satisfied and happy.


Down The Ricardian Economics Rabbit Hole

The traditional role of the tax system is to bring in sufficient revenue to cover the growing public sector requirements. Common measures the capacity of the tax system to mobilize revenues are buoyancy and elasticity (Asher 1989). A desirable property of a tax system is that income elasticity and buoyancy should be equal to or higher than unity. Such property ensures that revenue growth keeps pace with that of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) without frequent discretionary changes. More important, it imparts build-in stability in the middle tax system, hence ensuring mitigation of cyclic variations in GDP over the space of the business cycle.

The study attempts to investigate the determinants of tax buoyancy, paying particular attention on the effect of monetization on tax buoyancy. The tax performance analysis aims at finding out whether there is a chance of increasing tax revenue in developing nations through the monetary policy. Taxation is an important instrument for attaining a proper pattern of income distribution, resource allocation, and economic stability, in order that the fruits of economic development are evenly distributed.

Tax systems should be adequately stable and buoyant in order to allow for a country to cover its increasing financial commitments as its gross domestic product (GDP) grows. If the tax revenue of a country is stable and buoyant, there is a high probability that its public expenditure needs will be adequately met over time. If GDP is growing more than tax revenues then it could be one policy indicator that the tax structure needs reform. The study of tax buoyancy is of much importance, for it is both a quality and quantity measure of tax performance. Tax buoyancy can also serve to summarize revenue growth over time, (Zolt, 2003:8). Finally, it shows the force of the tax system in the country when they’re subjected to certain environments for example when a certain sector is declining.

Ricardian Economics Continued

The manner in which different countries raise taxes differs as widely as do the amounts they raise. The pattern of taxes found in any country depends upon many factors such as its history, its economic structure, and the tax structures found in neighbouring countries (Bird and Zolt, 2003: 7). According to Zolt (2003:1), developing countries are no different: ideas, institutions, and interests play a pivotal role in shaping tax policy. Basing on this argument the study will be focusing on COMESA countries since they’re close to each other and belong to a community. Countries no longer have the luxury to design their tax systems in isolation.

The normative bent of the literature on tax policy is concerned with the questions of why a country develops a particular tax structure and why this tax structure differs among countries and changes in the process of economic growth. This strand of tax literature not only recognizes the importance of administrative constraints on tax policy, but as opposed to the normative literature places administrative factors at the forefront.

Further Discussions About Ricardian Economics

The ‘tax handle’ theory offers a sweeping historical explanation of tax structure change. It argues that low-income economies are obliged to collect revenue from easy-to-administer taxes (or tax handles), but that this administrative constraint lessens as countries develop and become able to choose ‘better’ taxes as determined by the normative objectives discussed above. Measures of tax handles typically include per trade taxes, capita income, and the number of people living in urban areas (Liebaman, 2003).

The optimal tax theory, the reigning normative approach to taxation combines the set of available taxes to the government, information on a country’s economic structure, and aims of tax policy to make recommendations on tax mix, structure and incidence (see Slemrod, 1990; Burgess and Stern, 1993). Optimal taxes are those that raise a desired amount of revenue with the lowest marginal efficient cost, with few distortions and that support the desired amount of wealth. While optimal tax theory tackles the trade off of different taxes, it doesn’t explain the structure of government revenues.

The Ricardian equivalence theory rests on the opinion that once the government borrows instead of levying taxes to finance budget deficit the current generation is under taxed, they’re rational and will realize that the loan will have to be repaid from income tax at some time in the future; debt finance is therefore for the adjournment of the tax burden which will fall on the future generation. The importance of this theory to tax performance is now questionable given the continuous borrowing done in developing nations and continuous budget deficit in the economies. The theory suggests discipline in the monetary sector and also effective borrowing which doesn’t affect generations to come.

Stotsky, J.G. And WoldeMariam, A. (1997),’ Tax Effort in Sub-Saharan Africa,’ IMF Working Paper, WP/97/107, September.

Wawire Nelson Were H. (2000),’ The Determinants of Tax Revenue in Kenya. ‘ Kenyatta University, Nairobi.


Back-to-back Loan – Some Major Factors

There are two interest payment options you can select from when applying for a home loan-fixed rate and floating rate.

A fixed rate is where the level of interest is fixed throughout the length of the loan. Generally, most banks keep the rates fixed for a period of up to 5 years.

Some Back-to-back Loan Ideas

A floating rate is where the level of interest is benchmarked against a specific interest rate (usually the bank’s internal rate), and fluctuates according to the benchmark.

Usually, you can strike a floating rate loan at a reduced rate than a fixed rate loan, the difference being around one to two per cent.

Widening The Back-to-back Loan Discussion

Keep the following factors in mind while deciding whether to choose a fixed rate or floating rate: Outlook: When interest rates are high, it makes sense to go in for a floating rate loan, as a drop in rates will benefit you. And if interest rates are low, it is desirable to lock in a lower fixed rate for at least three-5 years.

Stage of life: If you’re a senior citizen, or somebody with a fixed source of revenue, you cannot afford an increase in EMI and should go for a fixed rate loan.

Fixed rate loans aren’t fixed In the world of finance, nothing is certain, especially where the loan segment is concerned. There is a great deal of fine print that needs to be read carefully before action is made because it can come back to haunt the person at some later stage. Investors as well as borrowers in India have experienced this in the past few years and hence this area needs extra attention.

In common parlance, the term fixed rate loan can be separated from the floating rate loan on the basis of the way in which a borrower will pay interest on the loan. In a floating rate loan, the rate paid is related to some other rate, usually a benchmark rate, fixed by the lending institution. Changes in an economy affect the benchmark rate and the borrower also experiences a change in the pace that he/she will pay. As opposed to this a fixed rate loan will have a fixed rate of concern to be paid on it.

This means that the fixed rate will also change; the only difference will become the frequency at which time it will change.

There are two factors that give rise to a change as regards the fixed rate is concerned. In many agreements, the rate is fixed for only a specific duration of time. This time period can be of three years or five years and the level of interest can change after this period is over. After this the lender can once again fix the rate for some extra time duration and this will be achieved based upon the situation prevailing at that time of time. So, if there has been an increase in the rates due to some reason, the fixed rates will be revised upwards and the person can get trapped because the higher rates will then be applicable for the following fixed time period.

This can also happen through a provision that says that in the event of an emergency situation in the economy or massive disruptions in the debt market, the rate of interest might change. What this situation will be isn’t well defined and is open to interpretation. Due to this reason borrowers will always be on the edge. In the event of such a situation, the loan will no longer have the features that the borrowers believed were present initially.

A word of caution All banks lend floating rate loans at a discount to a benchmark rate called ‘Prime Lending Rate’ (PLR). This benchmark rate and the volume of discount are an internal affair for a bank. This can affect a customer.

Let’s look at the movement of PLR and average discount of some private banks: The rates have risen from 8 to 12 per cent in around three years.

While the rates of interest for a new customer have fallen, those for the old customers are still increasing.

So, if you wish to avail of better rates, go in for prepayment and take a new loan. It might be worthwhile in spite of the 2 per cent prepayment fee.

Most private banks have increased the interest rates heavily, whereas public banks have been much more moderate.

Borrowers always find it hard to choose between a fixed rate loan and floating rate loan, and in recent years, they have to consider one more option-fixed floating rate loan.

In this loan type, the interest rate is fixed for an initial period. These later gets converted to a floating one.

What should a customer do? Consider the impact beyond year one while taking the loan. If interest rate for a new loan is deliberately kept low to attract customers, any change can result in a spike in the EMI. This will mean a large discount in the initial year on the prevalent interest rate. The rates mightn’t be in line with the rising trend of interest rates in the future.


Simplifying Bell Curve

In reality, the vast majority of the people fall within the ‘average ” range of the so-called Bell Curve. Most people are average in all the many things we seem to need to have to succeed past life’s challenges and to go to the finish line with a prize—intelligence, aptitudes, motivation, self-confidence, energy, creativity, personality, good looks, wealth, health, happiness, moral development, and a slew of other characteristics and skills.

Although most people are in fact just average, many struggle with accepting and dealing with that bleak reality given the over-glamorized, unrealistically ideal image and results loudly packaged by the mass-marketing media machine (4-M). For many average people, the discrepancy between where they’re and where they ‘d like to be, with a little influence from 4-M, is too vast to want to do something about it. In too many instances, the result is a sad, quiet life of desperation going unsung.

Bell Curve: More News

Quickly: what seems to be the average of twenty eight and negative four? It is twelve (28-4 = 24. 24 divided by 2 is 12).

First, it is usually a good idea to better understand and accept the reality that growing your acceptance and patience with time is perhaps the main test in life that puts all mankind together in the same boat. This is true no matter how high up on the Totem Pole the IQ, happiness thermometer, achievements, good looks, bank accounts, work success, or anything else are. If there is something that we can all call the same common monkey on our back, it is in having to face unacceptable things that we all have to finally learn to accept and become more patient with. Death goes a very long way to make a level playing field, of course.

The greatest gifts we’re all given equally at birth are opportunity, choices and time. Even average people have the very same and equal opportunity and time to make all the right choices to get somewhere good in life. The thing to accept here is that it just might take a little more, be a harder road to travel on and require more effort, than is advertised by the 4-M. But my personal experience has been that the longer I had to wait for something good to happen and the more effort I made in an attempt to make it happen, the more I enjoyed what I ended up with, even with just an ‘average ” prize.

Each person in the Bell Curve, from the middle to both ends, is given a unique mission in life and a special gift to accomplish that personal purpose. Success equally eludes anyone—no matter where he or she’s under the Bell Curve—until that unique purpose is discovered and the gift is established and used to get results in helping us all unravel the self-imposed limits of this monstrous, hostage-taking Bell Curve.

We invented the Bell Curve as a short cut to predict important things like achievement potential in school and work, so we could see the end before it happened. In doing so, we crammed a lot of untrue realities in the midst of this Bell Curve that have had very unhappy endings for too many good people. Of course what we ‘invented ” we can just as easily un-invent, particularly when it becomes obsolete, like all the seemingly best things usually do sooner or later. This is what popular new ‘theories ” do, like The Secret or Positive Psychology—trying to make us more conscious of the reality of unlimited human potential to go beyond average in ways we never imagined.

Opportunity, time, and choices are really all equally distributed, no matter what your present perception may be. And’ Average ” is just a word used by people who do not want their particular spot on the Bell Curve too crowded. In the end, the Bell Curve is just a pencil line that can be readily erased. It never really existed anyway.


Chairman From A-z

The Chairman of Directors presides over the council of directors meeting. The shareholders and directors appoint this chairman. It is this chairman, who calls the meeting of the council of directors. The chairman calls the meeting to consider those things. These need attention. The chairman sends prior notice of the event to the participants about the day, venue, and time of the meeting.

The chairman must compile a complete list of the participants in the meeting. All the participants must be carefully noted to avoid leaving anyone outside of the meeting.

Some Chairman Ideas

The chairman must issue an opinion of the meeting to all the participants containing the time, the venue, and a brief programme of the meeting. The participants in the meeting is expected to make a courtesy call reconfirming their intent to attend the meeting.

The presence of the quorum is the largest part of the meeting’s status. The meeting is official and authoritative only once it has the quorum. Otherwise, no decision taken in the session is binding.

The board undertakes action on subjects or agendas with shareholder voting. The board pursues only the subjects or agendas passed with a desired majority. These subjects or agendas are known as resolutions and normally require a majority of the shareholders’ votes to pass. However there are resolutions that need the majority of the membership of the Board of Directors, not the shareholders.

The board appoints different committees. These officiate and take actions reserved for the board. Generally these executive committees consist of one or more of the directors. There are exceptions with regard to the authority of these executive committees on a few subjects. These are listed below.

The branches of the bank have been rebranded and we’re now with the latest technology in providing the best banking services to our customers which includes any branch banking, said HirenBhanu.

The bank has also launched and are providing visa debit cards and ATM facilities together with a banking kiosk for a better in branch banking experience for our clients, added HirenBhanu.

The growth of the bank has continued despite the recession globally. Since HirenBhanu, was appointed vice chairman of the eib has also increased the amount of branches in Mumbai, Surat and Pune.

Decisions directing the members to sell, lease, or exchange all or part of the corporation’s properties and assets.

The documentation of the record and other formalities are a cumbersome job. To make the process easier, several websites have designed software packages that take good care of all these things.


Penny Stock – Understanding The Intricacies

Most penny stocks are shares of small companies that normally do not have great market penetration.The main difference between stocks and larger stocks is that they fluctuate enormously on a daily basis. When you decide to invest in the right small or large cap company, make sure you limit your order. While the OTCBB does require companies to file timely documents with the SEC, the pink sheets have no such requirement. Minimum standards serve as a safety cushion for some investors and as a reference for some companies. Penny Stocks on the OTCBB and pink sheets don’t have to fulfill minimum standard requirements to remain on the exchange. Stocks aren’t present in the typical markets that most stocks in your portfolio might be, such as NASDAQ, NYSE and AMEX.

The SEC defines penny stocks accordingly: The term ‘penny stock’ generally refers to low-priced (below $5), speculative securities of very small companies. While penny stocks generally are quoted over-the-counter, such as on the OTC Bulletin Board or in the Pink Sheets, they may also trade on securities exchanges, including foreign securities exchanges. In addition, stocks include the securities of certain private companies with no active trading market.

Before a broker-dealer can sell a penny stock, SEC rules require the firm to first approve the customer for the operation and receive from the customer a written contract to the dealing. The firm must furnish the customer a document describing the risks of investing in penny stocks. The firm must tell the customer the current market quotation, if any, for the penny stock and the compensation the firm and its broker will receive for the trade. Finally, the firm must send monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the customer’s account.

Penny stocks may trade infrequently. This means that it may be hard to sell penny stock shares once you own them. Because it may be hard to find quotations for certain penny stocks, they may be impossible to accurately price. Investors in penny stocks should be established for the possibility that they may lose their whole investment.

Let’s Continue This Analysis

Since pennystocks are traded outside the main markets, there’s plenty more room for investment from experienced and inexperienced investors. Penny stocks really help you develop a better understanding of how the market works, from the very finite details and inner workers of the trading counters. Identify what type you wish to invest in small cap,, micro cap, or large cap companies. These terms relate to the quantity of capital each of the companies have, and is a great way to gauge new opportunities or growth patterns. There may serve as a good place for penny stocks in the portfolio of an experienced, advanced investor, however, if you follow these steps.

Have you ever heard the phrase ‘the trend is your friend ‘? Well, with trading penny stocks, identifying trends through technical analysis and buying and selling according to that trend, can turn out to be very profitable. Small cap stocks are loosely categorized companies with share prices of below $5 and with market caps of under $200 million. They are sometimes referred to as ‘the slot machines of the equity market’ as a result of the risks involved. In basic terms, with trend trading, you buy a stock when it is trending up and sell as soon as it reverses that trend or conversely when shorting the stock you short sell it when trending down and cover your position at the place it starts to recover.

Regardless of your definition the point of penny stocks is your trading lower valued companies that have less information because the company is not required to have independently audited information and is never secured by a stock market analyst because virtually no one would read about it or be paid for the information.

In addition to finding penny stock tips, the Internet has also provided many avenues for the average penny stock trader to obtain penny stock tips and information about penny stock companies. Since the companies that are the focus of penny stock tips should be investigated prior to trading, it is important to find out where to find information about penny stock companies on the Internet.

Before I provide the websites and forums where most penny stock traders share their stock tips and information, a word of warning about penny stock trading is necessary (if you’re only interested in where to find penny stock tips on the Internet, then skip to the next chapter).

Penny stocks are inherently risky, much riskier than the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ stocks that many people are familiar with. Penny stocks are much riskier because they often represent companies that are found in the development stage and have no operating business, or companies that are operating but are very small and not well capitalized, or companies that are in fiscal difficulties. These precarious situations often lead penny stock companies to dilute the number of actions available to trade by authorizing additional shares and selling them into the open market. This is colloquially known as ‘printing shares”. Some traders characterize penny stocks as little more than share printing and merchandising operations. This is often but not always the case. Compounding this situation lies in the fact that information about the inner workings of penny stock companies is often hard to come by since a number of these companies aren’t under Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) requirements to disclose company information, due to their small size.

The bottom line is to be very careful when trading penny stocks. Keep in account the fact that the owners of the companies that penny stocks represent hold all the cards in the penny stock trading game, since they’re most always majority owners and fully control the shares of the companies and boards or directors. They make the decisions about selling additional penny stock shares into the market that may benefit themselves and other company insiders, but hurt those that hold penny stock shares. Money that one cannot afford to lose should never be used in order to trade penny stocks. For every 1, 000% penny stock gainer, there are tens of penny stocks that lose value, sometimes significantly and very quickly, as they’re diluted into oblivion.

Both Investors Hub and Silicon Investor can be viewed without a membership. However, participation in these websites is limited without a membership. It can be useful to have a membership, so you can ask questions about penny stock tips and about the stocks that you’re holding.

These are the most active penny stock trading boards on the Internet. If there are penny stock tips to be found, they can be made available on these boards. This is where to find penny stock tips on the Internet.

It is usually a very good idea to avoid penny stock tips that are received via e-mail. This is attributable to the fact that e-mailed penny stock tips are sent by pennystock promoters that have been paid by a penny stock company to promote their pennystock. It isn’t uncommon for penny stock companies to use the interest generated by e-mail promotions to sell additional stock, thus diluting the worth of their stock. By the time you get the e-mailed penny stock tip, any increase in price due to the advancement is likely to have played out, and the stock may quickly reverse direction and fall.

In the same vein, it isn’t a very good idea to chase a hot penny stock that has already taken a significant move to the top. Quick penny stock moves higher bring in great deal of penny stock momentum players, and although you might get lucky and catch some more of the upside momentum, you don’t wish to be holding the penny stock when the music stops and everyone is scrambling to sell. The selloffs in penny stocks can be brutal.

Be careful not to be learned in by the hype surrounding a particular penny stock. Every penny stock has long shareholders, its advocates, and sometimes paid promoters, that make wild claims about the potential upside of the pennystock that they’re holding or promoting. Due diligence is important when evaluating a penny stock. Do your research and discount the hype. If SEC filings are available for a penny stock you’re considering purchasing, then take the time to read them. Look for convertible debt deals in which money borrowed by the penny stock company can be converted into shares. Those types of deals usually lead to dilution and a lower stock price.

Keep in account the fact that the penny stocks that have failed miserably once had the same hype about their upside potential before they fell in value. Just look at their boards on Investors Hub to see what sort of hype and claims were being taken before their stock price collapsed.

The biggest difference between trading penny stocks and trading NYSE and NASDAQ stocks is that penny stocks are far more volatile. While NYSE and NASDAQ stocks sometimes make big moves on earnings or takeovers or mergers, penny stocks can gain or lose value much more rapidly than NYSE and NASDAQ stocks because they move on momentum. Because penny stocks are often thinly traded, only use limit orders to purchase or sell penny stocks. Otherwise, you may wind up buying or selling at prices that are far higher or less than you’re expecting.

Set your limits. Be prepared to sell quickly, if a penny stock trade isn’t working out. You may not get a second opportunity to sell at a price you’re comfortable selling at. It is better to lose 10% and still be found in the game to the search for a winner, than to be holding a penny stock that continues to drop in value. The key to the penny stock trading game is to maintain your trading capital and wait for the great 1, 000% gainer to fall into your lap. Do not wait for penny stocks to rebound, because it may represent a long time, if ever, before they rebound. Some penny stocks, even once high fliers, go to zero and lose all of their value. Stay in the game by preserving your trading capital.

Do your research, follow the penny stock tip boards, find posters who’ve good track records, and try to find a penny stock that is preparing to move higher. 1, 000% penny stock gainers aren’t common, but they do happen; which is why so many people take their chances trading pennystocks. Sometimes these small penny stock companies actually do have big developments, such as significant contracts with big well known companies or large sales gains. The risks in penny stocks are great. However, the rewards may likewise be great.

A good strategy for a newcomer to penny stock trading is to start following the penny stock trading boards and trade on paper, without using real money. Just note when you’d have brought the penny stock you’re interested in buying and how much you would arrange to have brought and pay for it, and then when you think it is time to sell, make a note of the price. See how you do on paper, and when you’re comfortable, start trading penny stocks with real money, but never just you can afford to lose. Penny stocks aren’t for retirement investing or investing for long term financial needs.

As penny stocks aren’t traded on the main markets, it’s important to find a trusted broker or side exchange market to facilitate the acquisition of stocks. In order to be really effective as an investor, you must understand the ‘bid and ask’ price connection. The difference between the bid (real) and ask (selling) price is referred to as spread and is the base in which you’ll calculate your earnings. This is particularly important as stocks are sold by estimated values versus a single unit price. It is wise to install a stop-loss tactic and protect your capital with prudent exit strategies. This is both high risk and high reward. So, it’s very important to find out what you are doing, and to hear the experts.

And therefore carries a higher risk than your average large stock investment, however, with the potential to make a great deal more money. For example, if a stock only cost 10 cents, a 1 penny increase would push a 10% gain.Typically, these types of stocks are sold for $5 or less, in most cases they are under a $1. Stocks aren’t present in the typical markets that most stocks in your portfolio might be, such as NASDAQ, NYSE and AMEX. Penny stocks are a great way of getting into the market at a low cost. And therefore, eliminates potential loss risks. The logic behind trading penny stocks is that they are far less expensive then their Blue Chip counter-parts.

When researching what stocks to invest in, it’s important to do your research. Make sure you hear what the company’s product is, and how it’s used in the marketplace. A limit trade limits the amount you will be paid for the stock or your selling price. If you are faced with a share that’s a penny, then even the slightest movement in price before you buy can cost you all your profit or throw you into a loss. Since activity may be low on these stocks, certain individuals can play with the price of the actions and increase their selling price.

In any case, if you are planning on buying stocks in bigger quantities, always make sure to go through a broker. They know the markets and are contained in charge of handling and selling, so it’s better to work with them to maximize opportunity. Sometimes, this is the reason why the stock is on one of the following exchanges. Once a company can no longer maintain its position on one of the leading exchanges, the company moves to either of these smaller exchanges. More often than not these companies are new or expanding their businesses and this market is a great avenue for investors to enter on the ground floor.


Clarifying Quantum Computing

Quantum computing is the Mount Everest of the Infotech transformation. Exactly what approach does well will almost assuredly utilize optical elements. With the limits of traditional electronic devices threatening to halt progress, alternatives, such as optical computing, will be required in the not so long run. One major difficulty for the development of such optical systems has been the have to convert in between optical and electronic signals. Because time invested transforming optical data into an electronic format takes longer than simply utilizing the traditional medium, the concept is unwise in lots of respects. On the other hand, a practically paradoxical principle known as slow light offers a method around this obstacle with a very useful solution.

Thankfully, things picked up after the title sequence was done and gone. While it didn’t meet the same area that ‘Casino’ had left the bar formerly, ‘Quantum’ gave simply enough to remind me that this was in fact another James Bond motion picture, albeit a little disjointed at times. Whoever director Marc Forster put in charge of editing, or maybe it was by his selection directed, should’ve used the quicker cuts more sparingly. As remarkable and distinctive as the opening automobile chase was, it was in some cases challenging to construct who was shooting at whom and where car A was in fact going. I don’t mean to judge every action scene in ‘Quantum’ by that standard, in reality the subsequent roof chase scene between Bond and an unusual double-agent was dealt with and shot effectively, with a very excellent finish.

More Ranting About Quantum Computing

It is a basic law of deep space that light can only exist at the speed of light. That is, photons have to constantly move at approximately 300 million meters per second. Looking closely at this law discloses a rather apparent loophole. Light waves passing through practically any provided medium, generally take longer to propagate with state media than they would release area, because the light is bent along a lengthier path due to the internal homes of the medium. Simply puts, photons will continue to move at light speed, but it takes them longer to browse through an item rather than just moving within a vacuum at light speed, i.e. light goes slower. Consequently, provided the proper medium, light can be slowed to a crawl, and even stopped.

We haven’t even thought about this yet

It is how much a medium bends light that identifies the ‘speed’ of light and this home classically relies on a material’s index of refraction. A material with a high sufficient index of refraction, for that reason, might be utilized to slow light. While the first demo of slow light in 1999, which yielded a speed around 17 meters per second, used a Bose-Einstein Condensate, which is a low-temperature state of matter where the atoms lose their individual characteristics and act nearly as a single bit, one alternative approach is to use the numerous arising manufactured meta-materials that show severe properties, including incredibly high indexes of refraction. On the other hand, analysts at the University of Sydney in New South Wales looked at advances in photonic crystals to suggest an even simpler, more vibrant option.

Investigating Quantum Computing

Photonic crystals are a swiftly advancing technology very first developed in the 1990’s. By engineering routine structures in an optical material, light will react to the pattern as though it is passing through a crystal. Providing analysts far higher control over light, photonic crystals can be utilized to slow light to variable speeds at constantly reducing costs with higher accuracy and less bulk. In reality, Professor Benjamin Eggleton’s research group has actually currently demonstrated an approach utilizing a photonic crystal structure crafted by a University of St. The Andrews team led by Professor Thomas F. Krauss for use over a broad bandwidth yields a sixteen fold increase in processing speeds over a traditional silicon chip, or 640 gigabits a second.

It is clearly the next step forward is a hybrid systems making use of photonic crystal chips. The secret to processing and transferring data stems from the ability to manage how information flows. Light can get information to where it needs to go rather swiftly, however the information needs to be stored until it can be utilized. Optical buffering as the ‘old fashion’ approach depends on expensive conversions between optical and electronic signals, so slowing light is a better alternative. A hybrid optical-electronic system would be exceptionally useful with the results instantly exceeding the capacity of electronic devices if light is slowed or stopped till it is required. We could pretty soon see a major improvement in the telecom market, followed by a renewed revolution in all computing technologies.

Thanks to initiatives for promoting civil investments in solar energy, LED lighting, national security and so on, technologies based upon research from the fields of optics have known fantastic progress in recent years. Simply as the fruits of this research lastly begin to ripen, however, public support is drying up due to budget battles in Europe and the United States. Private funding can frequently be extremely selective to our civilization’s detriment as entrepreneurs just desire to invest in products that guarantee them a return, specifically in the existing environment where high return, low cost business offers can be made use of by the financial investment neighborhood. The US is actually currently being substantially behind in supplying funds for research while even less financing is specific to retard progress just as we are the edge of major advances on a variety of fronts.

With fairly low-priced experimental needs, the optical sciences provide solutions for everything from national and energy security to pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Breakthroughs like slow light, meta-materials, photonic crystals, and quantum dots, which are basically ‘traps’ for photons and other bits, came about due to somewhat basic concepts of some really complicated subjects and researchers simply questioning. Not only do these discoveries and even more have a myriad of possible applications, the expenses connected with these technologies fall as we see progress while the advantages and earnings begin to accumulate. Pursuing associated research has currently exposed some extremely significant discoveries and opportunities, however, our society must be more aggressive in our pursuit of the standard research needed to recognize existing and future gains.